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读新闻坏处太多 少读可能更快乐

发布时间:2023-05-09 00:45:01人气:
本文摘要:In the past few decades, the fortunate among us have recognised the hazards of living with an overabundance of food (obesity, diabetes) and have started to change our diets. But most of us do not yet understand that news is to the mind wha


In the past few decades, the fortunate among us have recognised the hazards of living with an overabundance of food (obesity, diabetes) and have started to change our diets. But most of us do not yet understand that news is to the mind what sugar is to the body. News is easy to digest. The media feeds us small bites of trivial matter, tidbits that dont really concern our lives and dont require thinking. Thats why we experience almost no saturation. Unlike reading books and long magazine articles (which require thinking), we can swallow limitless quantities of news flashes, which are bright-coloured candies for the mind.Today, we have reached the same point in relation to information that we faced 20 years ago in regard to food. We are beginning to recognise how toxic news can be.过去几十年,我们幸运地认识到过量饮食的危害(例如造成体重增加和糖尿病),进而开始转变饮食结构。但是,大多数人并不知道新闻之于思维,如同糖类之于身体。媒体命上的逸闻趣事、荒谬信息只不过与我们的生活无颇关联,但更容易解读,读书一起并不费脑。


News misleads. Take the following event (borrowed from Nassim Taleb). A car drives over a bridge, and the bridge collapses. What does the news media focus on? The car. The person in the car. Where he came from. Where he planned to go. How he experienced the crash (if he survived). But that is all irrelevant. Whats relevant? The structural stability of the bridge. Thats the underlying risk that has been lurking, and could lurk in other bridges. But the car is flashy, its dramatic, its a person (non-abstract), and its news thats cheap to produce.News leads us to walk around with the completely wrong risk map in our heads.So terrorism is over-rated. Chronic stress is under-rated. The collapse of Lehman Brothers is overrated. Fiscal irresponsibility is under-rated. Astronauts are over-rated. Nurses are under-rated.新闻产生误导。下面借出纳西姆·塔勒布[1]的一个例子:一辆车驶出一座桥,结果桥塌了。




We are not rational enough to be exposed to the press. Watching an airplane crash on television is going to change your attitude toward that risk, regardless of its real probability. If you think you can compensate with the strength of your own inner contemplation, you are wrong. Bankers and economists – who have powerful incentives to compensate for news-borne hazards – have shown that they cannot. The only solution: cut yourself off from news consumption entirely.面临媒体,我们尚能过于理性。看见电视里报导飞机坠毁,也不管这种概率实际有多大,人们很更容易就转变自己对此类风险的观点。如果你以为能通过内心的深思熟虑抵销这种影响,那么你拢了。


News is irrelevant. Out of the approximately 10,000 news stories you have read in the last 12 months, name one that – because you consumed it – allowed you to make a better decision about a serious matter affecting your life, your career or your business. The point is: the consumption of news is irrelevant to you. But people find it very difficult to recognise whats relevant. Its much easier to recognise whats new. The relevant versus the new is the fundamental battle of the current age. Media organisations want you to believe that news offers you some sort of a competitive advantage. Many fall for that. We get anxious when were cut off from the flow of news. In reality, news consumption is a competitive disadvantage. The less news you consume, the bigger the advantage you have.新闻无关紧要。在你最近一年中读者的上万条资讯中,很难找到这样一条新闻:因为读书了它,让你面对人生、职场或事业的根本性问题时作出了更佳的要求。原因在于,你所读的新闻与你自身毫无关系。



News has no explanatory power. News items are bubbles popping on the surface of a deeper world. Will accumulating facts help you understand the world? Sadly, no. The relationship is inverted. The important stories are non-stories: slow, powerful movements that develop below journalists radar but have a transforming effect. The more news factoids you digest, the less of the big picture you will understand. If more information leads to higher economic success, wed expect journalists to be at the top of the pyramid. Thats not the case.新闻无法解释世界。新闻不过是浮表面的水泡,现实世界深藏其下。大大累积事实有助你理解这个世界吗?很失望,无法。



但事实毕竟如此。News is toxic to your body. It constantly triggers the limbic system . Panicky stories spur the release of cascades of glucocorticoid (cortisol). This deregulates your immune system and inhibits the release of growth hormones. In other words, your body finds itself in a state of chronic stress. High glucocorticoid levels cause impaired digestion, lack of growth (cell, hair, bone), nervousness and susceptibility to infections. The other potential side-effects include fear, aggression, tunnel-vision and desensitisation.新闻毒害身体。它大大感受到大脑边缘系统。


News increases cognitive errors. News feeds the mother of all cognitive errors: confirmation bias. In the words of Warren Buffett: What the human being is best at doing is interpreting all new information so that their prior conclusions remain intact. News exacerbates this flaw. We become prone to overconfidence, take stupid risks and misjudge opportunities. It also exacerbates another cognitive error: the story bias. Our brains crave stories that make sense – even if they dont correspond to reality. Any journalist who writes, The market moved because of X or the company went bankrupt because of Y is an idiot. I am fed up with this cheap way of explaining the world.新闻减少理解错误。新闻为“证实偏误”[2]获取养分,而后者正是一切理解错误的源泉。沃伦·巴菲特曾说道“人类最擅长于将所有新的信息都说明一通,以保证先前的结论不不受影响。



News inhibits thinking. Thinking requires concentration. Concentration requires uninterrupted time. News pieces are specifically engineered to interrupt you. They are like viruses that steal attention for their own purposes. News makes us shallow thinkers. But its worse than that. News severely affects memory. There are two types of memory. Long-range memorys capacity is nearly infinite, but working memory is limited to a certain amount of slippery data. The path from short-term to long-term memory is a choke-point in the brain, but anything you want to understand must pass through it. If this passageway is disrupted, nothing gets through. Because news disrupts concentration, it weakens comprehension. Online news has an even worse impact. In a 2001 study two scholars in Canada showed that comprehension declines as the number of hyperlinks in a document increases. Why? Because whenever a link appears, your brain has to at least make the choice not to click, which in itself is distracting. News is an intentional interruption system.新闻诱导思维。只有免遭睡觉才能集中于注意力,进而潜心思维。新闻片段却或许是专门停下来思维而设计。





News works like a drug. As stories develop, we want to know how they continue. With hundreds of arbitrary storylines in our heads, this craving is increasingly compelling and hard to ignore. Scientists used to think that the dense connections formed among the 100 billion neurons inside our skulls were largely fixed by the time we reached adulthood. Today we know that this is not the case. Nerve cells routinely break old connections and form new ones. The more news we consume, the more we exercise the neural circuits devoted to skimming and multitasking while ignoring those used for reading deeply and thinking with profound focus. Most news consumers – even if they used to be avid book readers – have lost the ability to absorb lengthy articles or books.After four, five pages they get tired, their concentration vanishes, they become restless. Its not because they got older or their schedules became more onerous.Its because the physical structure of their brains has changed.新闻就像毒品。随着新闻事件发展,我们想要告诉接下来再次发生了什么。



这并非因为年龄快速增长或者事务艰巨,而是因为大脑生理结构再次发生了转变。News wastes time. If you read the newspaper for 15 minutes each morning, then check the news for 15 minutes during lunch and 15 minutes before you go to bed, then add five minutes here and there when youre at work, then count distraction and refocusing time, you will lose at least half a day every week.Information is no longer a scarce commodity. But attention is. You are not that irresponsible with your money, reputation or health. Why give away your mind?新闻浪费时间。如果你每天早晨、午餐时和睡前各花上15分钟读书新闻,工作中再行不时取出5分钟来看新闻,不妨计算出来一下注意力集中和新的寻回所耗时间。

你不会找到每周最少半天时间就这么浪费了。新闻仍然是匮乏商品,而注意力毕竟。你会不在乎金钱、名誉和身体健康,可为什么却不把思维当回事呢?News makes us passive. News stories are overwhelmingly about things you cannot influence. The daily repetition of news about things we cant act upon makes us passive. It grinds us down until we adopt a worldview that is pessimistic, desensitised, sarcastic and fatalistic. The scientific term is learned helplessness. Its a bit of a stretch, but I would not be surprised if news consumption, at least partially contributes to the widespread disease of depression.新闻令人消极。


或许这么说道有点言过其实,但是新闻消费最少在一定程度上造成抑郁症风行。回应我并不深感车祸。News kills creativity. Finally, things we already know limit our creativity. This is one reason that mathematicians, novelists, composers and entrepreneurs often produce their most creative works at a young age. Their brains enjoy a wide, uninhabited space that emboldens them to come up with and pursue novel ideas. I dont know a single truly creative mind who is a news junkie – not a writer, not a composer, mathematician, physician, scientist, musician, designer, architect or painter. On the other hand, I know a bunch of viciously uncreative minds who consume news like drugs. If you want to come up with old solutions, read news. If you are looking for new solutions, dont.新闻助长创造力。这是我要谈的最后一点。



Society needs journalism – but in a different way. Investigative journalism is always relevant. We need reporting that polices our institutions and uncovers truth. But important findings dont have to arrive in the form of news. Long journal articles and in-depth books are good, too.社会必须新闻行业,但不是现在这种局面。调查性新闻报道往往能切中要害,而我们的报导就应当充分发挥监督各类机构和揭发事实真相的起到。不过,根本性找到不一定不须以新闻形式反映。长篇杂志文章以及有深度的书籍也是上佳自由选择。

I have now gone without news for four years, so I can see, feel and report the effects of this freedom first-hand: less disruption, less anxiety, deeper thinking, more time, more insights. Its not easy, but its worth it.将近四年,我挣脱新闻的束缚,转而自由选择去看,去感觉。我的切身体会是:内心仍然情绪徬徨,可以深度思维而不被停下来,有了更好时间来洞察世事。